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List of All Bash External Variables – Linux 2018

In last article, we discussed out Bash Environment Variables which always play an important role in Bash Shell Scripting and here in this article, we listed out all Bash External Variables which you can use while doing Bash Programming.

External programs are often used within shell scripts; there are a few builtin commands ( echo , which , and test are commonly builtin), but many useful commands are actually Unix utilities, such as tr , grep , expr and cut . The backtick (`)is also often associated with external commands.

bzip2 Compression using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm and Huffman coding.
cat List the contents of the specified file.
chage Change the password expiration date for the specified system user account.
chfn Change the specified user account’s comment information.
chgrp Change the default group of the specified file or directory.
chmod Change system security permissions for the specified file or directory.
chown Change the default owner of the specified file or directory.
chpasswd Reads a file of login name and password pairs and updates the passwords.
chsh Change the specified user account’s default shell.
compress Original Unix file compression utility.
cp Copy the specified files to an alternate location.
df Display current disk space statistics for all mounted devices.
du Display disk usage statistics for the specified filepath.
file View the file type of the specified file.
finger Display information about user accounts on the Linux system or a remote system.
grep Search a file for the specified text string.
groupadd Create a new system group.
groupmod Modify an existing system group.
gzip The GNU Project’s compression using Lempel-Ziv compression.
head Display the first portion of the specified file’s contents.
killall Send a system signal to a running process based on process name.
less Advanced viewing of file contents.
link Create a link to a file using an alias name.
ls List directory contents.
mkdir Create the specified directory under the current directory.
more List the contents of the specified file, pausing after each screen of data.
mount Display or mount disk devices into the virtual file system.
passwd Change the password for a system user account.
ps Display information about the running processes on the system.
pwd Display the current directory.
mv Rename a file.
rm Delete the specified file.
rmdir Delete the specified directory.
sort Organize data in a data file based on the specified order.
stat View the file statistics of the specified file.
tail Display the last portion of the specified file’s contents.
tar Archive data and directories into a single file.
touch Create a new empty file, or update the timestamp on an existing file.
umount Remove a mounted disk device from the virtual file system.
useradd Create a new system user account.
userdel Remove an existing system user account.
usermod Modify an existing system user account.
zip Unix version of the Windows PKZIP program.
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